Bladder Cancer


Bladder cancer is the second most common urologic malignancy second to prostate cancer. The incidence of bladder cancer is 53,000 new cases per year and increases with age. The disease is more common in Caucasians when compared to African and Hispanic populations in America. According to the National Cancer Institute, the highest incidence of bladder cancer occurs in industrialized countries such as the United States, Canada, and France. The lowest incidence is found in Asia and South America, where it is about 70% lower than in the United States.

Age Sex Incidence of Bladder Cancer per 100,000 people
65-69 years Male 142
Female 33
85 or older Male 296
Female 74

Bladder cancer accounts for approximately 90% of cancers of the urinary tract (renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra). Urine is produced by the kidneys, carried to the bladder by the ureters, stored and release from the bladder through the urethra. In developing countries, 75% of the cases are due to schistosoma haematobium, which leads to squamous cell carcinoma of the urothelium. In the United States, squamous cell carcinoma only accounts for 8%, and transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of urothelial cancers. .

Bladder cancer usually originates in the bladder lining, which consists of a layer of surface cells (transitional epithelial cells), smooth muscle, and a fibrous layer. Tumors are categorized as low-stage (superficial) or high-stage (muscle invasive).